Home Info Hari “Tanpa Bayangan” di Indonesia

Hari “Tanpa Bayangan” di Indonesia

KULMINASI atau transit atau istiwa’ adalah fenomena ketika matahari tepat berada di posisi paling tinggi di langit. Saat deklinasi Matahari sama dengan lintang pengamat, fenomenanya disebut sebagai Kulminasi Utama.

Pada saat itu, Matahari akan tepat berada di atas kepala pengamat atau di titik zenit. Akibatnya, bayangan benda tegak akan terlihat “menghilang”, karena bertumpuk dengan benda itu sendiri. Karena itu, hari kulminasi utama dikenal juga sebagai hari tanpa bayangan.

Mengapa Terjadi?

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Karena bidang ekuator Bumi / bidang rotasi Bumi tidak tepat berimpit dengan bidang ekliptika / bidang revolusi Bumi, sehingga posisi Matahari dari Bumi akan terlihat terus berubah sepanjang tahun antara 23,5o LU s.d. 23,5o LS. Hal ini disebut sebagai gerak semu
harian Matahari.

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Tahun ini, Matahari tepat berada di khatulistiwa pada 20 Maret 2022 pukul 22.33 WIB dan 23 September 2022 pukul 08.04 WIB. Adapun pada 21 Juni 2022 pukul 16.14 WIB Matahari berada di titik balik Utara dan pada 22 Desember 2022 pukul 04.48 WIB Matahari berada di titik balik Selatan.

Kapan Terjadinya?

Mengingat posisi Indonesia yang berada di sekitar ekuator, kulminasi utama di wilayah Indonesia akan terjadi dua kali dalam setahun dan waktunya tidak jauh dari saat Matahari berada di khatulistiwa.

Di kota-kota lain, kulminasi utama terjadi saat deklinasi Matahari sama dengan lintang kota tersebut. Khusus untuk kota Jakarta, fenomena ini terjadi pada 4 Maret 2022, yang kulminasi utamanya terjadi pada pukul 12.04 WIB, dan pada 9 Oktober 2022, yang kulminasi utamanya terjadi pada pukul 11.40 WIB.

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Secara umum, kulminasi utama tahun 2022 di Indonesia terjadi terjadi antara 21 Februari 2022 di Baa, Nusa Tenggara Timur hingga 5 April 2022 di Sabang, Aceh dan 7 September 2022 di Sabang, Aceh sampai dengan 21 Oktober 2022 di Baa, Nusa Tenggara Timur.

(Sumber: BMKG)



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